Tokyo 1964 sign

With the delayed 2020 Olympics in Tokyo finally happening in 2021, it’s worth looking back on the first time that Tokyo hosted the Olympics in 1964. Lasting from October 10-24, the 18th Summer Olympic Games were novel in many ways. They also featured a number of world records made and broken as well as nations made and dissolved.

Many remark upon the technological feats of the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, while others mention the great upsets that occurred during the games. But no matter what part is pointed at, the 1964 Tokyo Summer Olympics remain notable in history for a number of reasons.

But the athletics weren’t the only crazy thing about the 1964 Olympics. The city of Tokyo went through a great deal to put on the Olympics, and not all the effects were positive. The city ended up forever changed largely in part to its hosting of the 1964 Summer Olympics. And some people, like Kohei Jinno, who was evicted to make way for the construction of the National Stadium for the 1964 Olympics, find themselves being evicted once more as the Olympics rolls back into town. Here are some crazy stories from the last time Tokyo hosted the Olympics.

Tokyo was the first non-Western city to host the Olympics

Tokyo 1964 Olympics poster

When Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, it was the first non-Western city to host the Olympics. But it actually wasn’t the first time that Tokyo was chosen to host the Games.

The Associated Press writes that in 1936, Tokyo was chosen to host the 1940 Summer Olympics. And since the selected nation also had the option of hosting the Winter Olympics as well, Sapporo was meant to host the 1940 Winter Olympics. However, after Japan invaded China in 1937, it ended up giving up its hosting duties because military leaders claimed that they needed the metal set aside for building the venues for the war effort.

The 1940 Olympics were then rescheduled for Helsinki, who had been the runner-up in the bidding for host city. However, when World War II started in September 1939, the Olympics just ended up being cancelled altogether. Helsinki would go on to host the 1952 Summer Olympics after World War II ended. And in 1964, Tokyo finally had its chance to host the Olympics. And according to Give Me Sport, with the upcoming 2020 Olympics, Tokyo is also the first Asian city to host the Olympic Games twice.

South Africa was excluded from the 1964 Tokyo Olympics

South Africa's Minister of the Interior Johannes de Klerk

Having joined the International Olympic Committee in 1911, South Africa competed with exclusively white teams in the Olympics from 1912 to 1936. In 1948, this was changed to racial segregation in sports, with separate teams of Black athletes and white athletes. But in response to the country’s apartheid policies, according to Ufahamu: A Journal of African Studies, in 1959, a campaign began within the IOC, led by Soviet Union representatives General Stortschev and Alexi Romanov, to ban South Africa from the Olympics due to their apartheid policies.

However, despite international pressure to integrate the teams, the apartheid policy remained, with South Africa’s Minister of the Interior Johannes de Klerk (pictured) claiming that it would be "inadmissible" for Black South Africans to be considered as representing white South Africans.

South African History Online writes that one year before the 1964 Summer Olympics, the International Olympic Committee told South Africa that if they didn’t integrate their Olympic teams, then they would be banned from the Olympics. South Africa missed their first deadline and after an extension, they announced seven non-white people out of their team of 62 athletes. However, this wasn’t good enough and on August 18, 1964, South Africa was banned from the Olympics for the very first time, per the BBC. In October 1964, South Africa was also given an indefinite suspension by FIFA.

Two time marathon champion

Abebe Bikila 1964

Abebe Bikila had already shown the world what he was capable of when he won the gold medal running the Olympic marathon in Rome in 1960. And because his new running shoes were causing blisters, according to The Guardian, Bikila ended up winning the marathon while running barefoot. That year, Bikila, from Ethiopia, also became the first Black African person to win an Olympic gold medal, along with Ike Quartey from Ghana, who won an Olympic silver medal in boxing.

Four years later in the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, World Athletics writes that Bikila returned to run in and not only did he successfully defend his gold medal, but he set a new world record of 2:12:11.2. In doing so, Bikila also became the first person to win the Olympic marathon twice. And just 40 days earlier, Bikila had been in the hospital, undergoing an appendectomy. Bikila’s athletic career lasted from 1960 to 1966, during which time he won 12 out of the 13 marathons he entered. The only marathon Bikila lost was when he placed 5th in the 1963 Boston Marathon.

Tragically, Bikila was in a car accident in 1969 that left in paralyzed, and in 1973, he died from a brain hemorrhage related to the injuries he sustained from the accident.

1964 saw the first live worldwide broadcast of the Olympics

Tokyo 1964 being recorded

The 1964 Tokyo Summer Olympics were notable in that they were the very first Olympics to be broadcast live around the globe. Although the 1960 Rome Olympics were the first to be broadcast live, they were only televised in Europe. But according to the Guinness World Records, the 1964 Tokyo Olympics were the first ones to reach a worldwide audience. And for those in Japan, the Olympic coverage was even in color.

This was made possible due to SYNCOM 3, the first geostationary satellite. But according to Via Satellite, because NBC "was adamant about preserving its rights," only the Opening Ceremonies were televised live in the United States.

The 1964 Tokyo Olympics were also technologically notable due to the fact that it was the first Olympics to involve computers. In "Understanding the Olympics," John Horne and Garry Whannel write that the 1964 Tokyo Olympics used a computer system designed by IBM to "report, record, and transmit text data of the sports events."

Zambia declared independence during the Closing Ceremony

1964 Tokyo Closing Ceremony

Although the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was dissolved on December 31, 1963, Zambia didn’t become the Republic of Zambia until October 24, 1964, according to the African American Registry. This made Zambia the only nation to enter the Olympics as one country and leave as another, since independence from Great Britain was declared on the same day as the closing ceremony of the 1964 Tokyo Olympics (pictured).

Sunday Observer writes that this independence was celebrated when the team carried a placard that said "Zambia" during the closing ceremonies. And Impumelelo: The Interdisciplinary Electronic Journal of African Sports writes that instead of the Union Jack flag, the Zambian flag was carried instead.

After declaring independence, Zambia has participated in every Olympic Game except for the 1976 Olympics. The 1976 Montreal Summer Olympics were boycotted by Zambia, along with 28 other countries because, according to The Atlantic, the New Zealand national men’s rugby team, the All Blacks, toured South Africa despite the sporting embargo called for by the United Nations.

Tamakoce Te’Hila’s victory

Billy Mills

Tamakoce Te’Hila, also known as Billy Mills, is an Oglala Lakota distance runner who came as a "virtual unknown" only to completely dominate the competition at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics in the 10,000-meter run. According to Partnership With Native Americans, Mills grew up on the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota and started running from an early age. In high school, after setting a series of records in track events, Mills was awarded a cross-country scholarship to the University of Kansas. But even when running as an All-American, Mills was subjected to racist treatment and exclusion, reports wbur.

After graduating, Mills joined the U.S. Marine Corps, and he actually competed in the Olympics as a First Lieutenant, having received permission to focus on training. And in a race with several favorites, Mills surged in the last few seconds to take the lead and win the race in "one of the greatest upsets in Olympic Games history," according to the United States Olympic & Paralympic Museum. And as of 2021, no other athlete from the United States has won gold in the 10,000-meter run since.

Since being in the Olympics, Mills co-founded the foundation Running Strong for American Indian Youth, along with Gene Krizek. In addition to offering grants to Native youth in the United States, Running Strong works with multiple projects involving clean water access, preservation of culture and language, and providing basic necessities.

The debut of women’s volleyball

1964 women's volleyball

Although volleyball was included as a demonstration event in the 1924 Olympics, it took 40 years for volleyball to have a consistent place at the Summer Olympics. But in 1964, it was officially included as both a women’s and a men’s event, according to the Official Olympics Website. However, it was the Japanese women’s volleyball team that really set the stage for the sport.

According to Tokyo 2020, during their final match against the Soviet Union, the audience rating in Japan was over 80%, meaning that it was "quite literally a match that stopped the nation." The Japanese women’s volleyball team beat the Soviet Union women’s volleyball team in straight sets (15-11, 15-8, 15-13) and won the gold medal. Their women’s volleyball team also went on to win gold in the 1976 Montreal Olympics.

And Japan Forward writes that although the Soviet Union had long dominated volleyball, the Japanese women’s team had won a world championship against the Soviet Union in 1962, which got them ready for their Olympic win two years later.

The first Shinkansen train line

bullet train in 1967

The very first Shinkansen train line was opened just nine days before the start of the 1964 Tokyo Olympics. After over five years of construction, the very first bullet train swept through the nation on October 1, 1964 and, linking Tokyo and Osaka, traveling at speeds up to 130 mph. But according to The Japan Times, there was absolutely no reason to link Osaka and Tokyo and have the Shinkansen ready in time for the Games, since there were no Olympic events taking place in Osaka. But since "the goal was to impress the rest of the world with the high level of Japanese technological achievement," the bullet train was pushed through, with detrimental effects.

The project cost $1 billion, while the original estimates had been around $500 million, and the BBC writes that the overrun costs were such a scandal that the president of Japanese National Railway, Shinji Sojo, and chief engineer, Hideo Shima, were both compelled to resign. In order to pay for the overwhelmingly expensive Shinkansen, money was siphoned out of the monorail. Because of this, the monorail, which was meant to link Tokyo center to Haneda Airport, ended up terminating at a few stops south of the center.

And in order to avoid paying for land, the monorail was constructed over water, "covering the rivers, canals, and sea areas below with landfill and concrete in the process." As a result, fishing jobs and seaweed fields ended up disappearing from the area.

The best of the best

Ann Packer Olympic medals

Ann Packer was a relative unknown when she competed in the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, having never run in an international race before. In fact, Packer had only run in five previous races total before competing for the United Kingdom in the 800m run, according to the Official Olympics website.

Packer was born in Oxfordshire and had competed in various track and field events throughout her life. But during the day, she worked as a PE teacher, a job she maintained while training to be a "top-level athlete," an experience that Packer described as "pretty difficult."

The Guardian writes that Packer was the favorite to win the 400m run, since earlier that year she’d completed the run with the "fastest time in the world that year," but she ended up finishing after Australia’s Betty Cuthbert and receiving the silver medal. But then, having little experience in the 800m run, Packer blew everyone away. Not only did she win the gold medal, but at the time she set a new world record of 2:01.1. With the Olympic gold in hand, Packer decided to retire while she was ahead, making the 1964 Tokyo Olympics Packer’s first and last Olympic Games.

North Korea withdraws its athletes

North Korean olympic stamp 1964

After lobbying for it since the armistice was signed in 1953, the International Olympic Committee "definitely recognized" North Korea’s inclusion in the Olympics by 1963. But although they would compete in the 1964 Winter Olympics in Austria, by the time the Summer Olympics rolled around, the situation became politically charged once more.

According to "An Historical Reconsideration of GANEFO" by Russell Field, the relationship between regional games and the IOC was still fairly undefined at the time. But after Indonesia refused to give visas to athletes from Israel or Taiwan for the 1962 Asian Games in Jakarta, the IOC demanded for Indonesia to be held responsible and in February 1963, a motion was passed to suspend the Indonesian Olympic Committee "for an unlimited period." President Sukarno of Indonesia was furious, and in response declared that Indonesia was going to host the first Games of New Emerging Forces (GANEFO). According to World Atlas, despite threats of sanctions from the IOC, 51 nations sent athletes and participants to the 1st GANEGO in April, 1963.

Because of their participation in the GANEFO, six North Korean athletes, including world record holder Sin KÅ­mtan, were banned from the Olympics. North Korea declared that if the ban wasn’t lifted, they’d withdraw all 180 of their athletes. The ban was upheld, and in response, North Korea withdrew its athletes from the 1964 Tokyo Olympics. Due to other disputes, they wouldn’t reappear at the Summer Olympics until 1972.

One of the greatest

Olympic wrestler Watanabe Osamu

The 1964 Tokyo Olympics were the first and last Games that Watanabe Osamu competed in, but he’s still known as "one of the greatest wrestlers" to compete in the Olympics.

Although the numbers vary, it’s estimated that Watanabe won between 187 and 300 matches during his short career, and he was never beaten, according to the "Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement" by Ian Buchanan and Bill Mallon. And during the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, Watanabe won his gold medal in featherweight freestyle "without sacrificing a single point" in any of his matches. With this, Watanabe remains the only undefeated Olympic wrestler, writes Inside the Game.

After retiring from wrestling at the age of 23, Watanabe went on to work in an advertising agency in Tokyo. Watanabe came out of retirement briefly for an occasional competition, but in 1989, after losing a match, his unbeaten winning streak finally came to an end.

Tokyo was completely rebuilt

Tokyo olympic park bird's eye view

The Shinkansen and the IBM computers weren’t the only newly constructed marvels of the Summer Olympics. Almost the entire city of Tokyo was completely rebuilt for the 1964 Games.

The Japan Times writes that when Tokyo won the honor of hosting in 1959, the capital was covered by old wooden houses, stucco buildings, and apartment blocks. But once the plan to host the Olympic Games was set in motion, a massive construction project followed suit. Up to 10,000 new offices and residential buildings were constructed, along with over 60 miles of new superhighways, almost 25 miles of new subway lines, and new five-star hotels. A new sewage system was also implemented, allowing the introduction of flush toilets. And according to First Post, as the new apartment blocks replaced the old wooden houses, Tokyo was also given a new road network, "often raised or underground."

The reconfiguration of Tokyo also gave Japan the opportunity to get most of the U.S. military bases out of central Tokyo. However, the CIA-backed Liberal Democratic Party was still able to keep U.S. soldiers in Japan with the 1960 extension of the security treaty.

A decorated Olympian

Larisa Latynina

Before Michael Phelps was able to collect 28 Olympic medals, the most decorated Olympian of all time was Larisa Latynina, the Russian artistic gymnast who competed for the Soviet Union. During the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, Latynina set a world record by walking away as the most decorated Olympian of all time, amassing 18 total Olympic medals for individual and team events in her career. Before her, Finnish runner Paavo Nurmi held the record with 12 Olympic medals.

But according to Reuters, Latynina didn’t even know that she was such a record holder for 15 years. She only realized after she was sent a cutout of a magazine article by a journalist from Czechoslovakia. "Up until 1979 I did not even have an idea that I could be a record holder. I really was surprised by this," Latynina said in an interview.

With a background in ballet, Latynina began competing at the Olympics at the age of 21 during the 1956 Melbourne Olympics. And two years later, during the 1958 Moscow World Championships, Latynina competed, and won several gold medals, while she was four months pregnant. Latynina retired after the 1966 World Championships and began coaching for the Soviet Union instead. But as of 2021, Latynina remains the only woman and only one of four athletes who have won nine Olympic gold medals.

200,000 stray animals euthanized

stray dog and cat

While the city of Tokyo was rebuilt for the 1964 Olympics, many people who lived there were displaced through various means, ranging from being offered small sums of money to tax harassment or public shaming. Meanwhile, the animals in the streets of Tokyo were dealt with in another way.

The Japan Times estimates that roughly 200,000 stray cats and dogs were euthanized in the year leading up to the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, using a device that suffocated them with carbon dioxide.

This was neither the first nor the last time that animals were rounded up and killed in an attempt to uphold appearances for the Olympic Games. For the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, stray dogs were euthanized as they were described as "biological trash," even after the city said that they would rehome the dogs rather than killing them, according to Time Magazine. And during the 2004 Athens Olympics, there were reports that up to 15,000 stray dogs were poisoned.

Taking gold with a broken thumb

Tokyo 1964 Olympics boxing stamp

Before the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, Joe Frazier was an amateur boxer who had just joined the United States team and went to the Olympics as an alternate delegate in the heavyweight squad. But when Buster Mathis broke his thumb right before the start of the Games, Frazier was sent in as his replacement.

Frazier started off strong, and even against the Soviet boxer Vadim Yemelyanov, who was at least four inches taller, Frazier was able to win with a knock-out. But according to the United States Olympic & Paralympic Museum, during the fight with Yemelyanov, Frazier ended up with a broken thumb as well. But instead of seeking medical attention, Frazier just soaked his thumb in cold water and got ready for his last fight against German boxer Hans Huber the next day, according to Tokyo 2020. Frazier was unable to win with his classic knockout, but despite the pain he still won his Olympic gold medal on a 3-2 judges’ decision.

This was just the start of Frazier’s boxing career. In 1971, he went on to beat Muhammad Ali in what was known as the "Fight of the Century." Although Ali beat Frazier in their following two fights, it was Frazier who broke Ali’s unbeaten record.

Assassination of Julius Caesar', c1749-1821.

Throughout history, prominent figures have been targeted for assassination. And if it occurred during the 20th century, it’s more than likely the CIA was involved somehow. But some historical figures were able to survive numerous assassination attempts, some through skill and others by dumb luck. Some survived dozens of assassination attempts while others survived hundreds.

Some people, like Rasputin, have gone down in history as being notoriously difficult to kill. But some of the numerous assassination attempts on his life might actually be a myth. It’s suspected that Putin has also been the target of numerous assassination attempts, although clearly Putin himself has been much more successful.

Queen Victoria, on the other hand, seemed to survive numerous events and come back stronger in the eyes of the public each time. This isn’t unexpected, for even President Reagan’s popularity soared after his attempted assassination, jumping from 38 percent to 51 percent almost in an instant. And President Reagan is only one of thirteen presidents to survive an assassination attempt.

Tragically, people continue to face assassination attempts in 2020, and indigenous leaders who fight for environmental protections are some of the biggest targets. Despite the fact that the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights has stressed the protections of indigenous people rights on their lands, in places like Brazil, miners and loggers repeatedly encroach on indigenous lands and murder indigenous leaders who resist. Here are some of the historical figures who survived the most assassination attempts.

Fighting back against assassination attempts

King Zog of Albania at attention

King Zog I, the last monarch of Albania, survived over 50 assassination attempts during his reign from 1928 to 1939. There also existed roughly 600 blood feuds, or gjakmarrja, against him.

The assassination attempts began as soon as King Zog started rising to power in the early 1920s. As prime minister, he frequently disappeared anyone who disagreed with his politics, deeming them "an enemy of freedom."

One of the first assassination attempts occurred before Zog became king. On February 23, 1924, Zog was shot twice by Beqir Valteri as he entered parliament. Zog survived, and although he tried to suppress knowledge of the attempted assassination, by June of that year, he and his followers were forced into exile. But by 1925, Zog staged a coup and resumed his rule over Albania, finally crowning himself king in 1928.

On February 21, 1931, another assassination was attempted by Aziz Çami and Ndok Gjeloshi while King Zog visited the Vienna State Opera. According to Operation Valuable Fiend by Albert Lulushi, by firing back at the assassins with a pistol, King Zog became "the only known case in history of a head of state fighting back during an assassination attempt."

Zog ended up fleeing to Great Britain when Italy invaded Albania during the Second World War and Mussolini made Albania a protectorate, despite the fact that Zog had initially supported Mussolini. Although he hoped to return, after Enver Hoxha established a communist republic, King Zog formally abdicated in 1946.

An assassination fit for a queen

Assassination attempt against Queen Victoria

During her reign from 1837 to 1901, Queen Victoria of England survived eight attempts on her life, and only one of them resulted in actual injury to the queen. According to Culture Trip, the first attempt occurred four months after Victoria married Prince Albert in 1840. As the newlyweds headed to Hyde Park in an open carriage Edward Oxford, an 18-year-old barman, fired at the queen.

The crowd promptly overpowered him while Victor and Albert continued onward "to show the public that we had not, on account of what had happened, lost all confidence in them," Albert later wrote. Oxford was imprisoned at Bethlem asylum for 24 years before being deported to Australia in 1864.

According to The Smithsonian Magazine, the only time Queen Victoria was actually injured was by the only attempt made without a gun. In 1850, she was struck over the head with an "iron-tipped cane" by Robert Pate, an ex-soldier. Although she appeared in Covent Garden two hours later to prove that her injury wasn’t severe, Queen Victoria was left with a "black eye, a welt, and a scar that lasted for years."

Ultimately, Queen Victoria didn’t seem to mind all the assassination attempts. She became more and more popular after every attempt, and after the 1882 attempt, she wrote, "It is worth being shot at to see how much one is loved."

Trying to assassinate Ghanaian independence

Kwame Nkrumah entering vehicle

Kwame Nkrumah, the first Prime Minister and President of Ghana, survived numerous assassination attempts as he helped lead Ghana to independence from Britain in 1957. As a fierce advocate for liberating the African continent from imperialism, between 1956 and 1962, Nkrumah survived at least five assassination attempts.

According to The New York Times, although President Nkrumah often escaped the assassination attempts unscathed, those around him couldn’t say the same. During an attempted bombing on September 9, 1962, over 60 people were wounded and a little girl was killed in the blast.

And according to Kwame Nkrumah’s Politico-cultural Thought and Policies by Kwame Botwe-Asamoah, eventually, the repeated assassination attempts caused Nkrumah to isolate himself. The assassination of Patrice Lumumba also "affected him traumatically," someone whom the CIA had also considered assassinating.

Striving for a pan-African policy, President Nkrumah’s governmental policies veered toward the dictatorial, and by 1964, he had established himself as president for life until he was deposed during the 1966 military coup. According to Nkrumah himself, the coup was merely an extension of the failed assassination attempts, "no doubt inspired by neo-colonialist aided military coups in other parts of Africa." After Nkrumah was overthrown, many in the opposition party revealed that they had in fact been involved in the numerous assassination attempts.

Over 30 failed assassination attempts

Bullet hole from assassination attempt on de Gaulle's Citroen DS

Known primarily for leading France against the Nazis during World War II, Charles de Gaulle survived over 30 assassination attempts, some of which allegedly involved the CIA. During several of the assassination attempts, de Gaulle survived because he had such skilled chauffeurs, such as in 1961, when a napalm bomb exploded on the road and the driver drove straight through the flames.

Another assassination attempt in 1962 was also prevented by de Gaulle’s driver, who was able to accelerate away after 140 bullets were fired into his car, popping three tires and killing two bodyguards. Along with a group of soldiers, Jean Bastien-Thiry led the assassination attempt out of the belief that de Gaulle’s acceptance of Algerian independence had been a betrayal. The group was soon arrested and they became the last people to be executed by firing squad in France.

Although it’s unclear whether or not the CIA was ever directly involved in any of the assassination attempts, according to The Guardian, the CIA was definitely approached in 1965 and asked to "help in a conspiracy to kill the French President." The plan involved a poisoned ring, "perhaps with a curare-tipped needle," hoped to seal de Gaulle’s fate with a lethal handshake. Unfortunately, it’s unknown how much the CIA truly entertained the plot.

From assassination bullets to nose drops

King Hussein of Jordan overlooking the countryside

Even before ascending to the throne of Jordan, King Hussein of survived an assassination attempt that claimed the life of his grandfather, King Abdullah I. According to The Associated Press, Hussein was 16 years old when his grandfather was assassinated on July 20, 1951. Hussein was with him and was able to miraculously survive because a medal on his chest deflected the bullet aimed at his heart.

Although Hussein’s father, Talal, was next in line for the throne, after a year, he abdicated, and 17-year-old Hussein ascended to the throne. During his reign from 1952 to 1999, King Hussein survived over ten assassination attempts, with methods ranging from bullets to food poisoning to rocket launchers.

One of the assassination attempts even involved putting acid into the nose drops that King Hussein used for his sinusitis. The only reason the plot was uncovered was when a drop spilled and burned the floor. According to Global Security Watch Jordan by W. Andrew Terrill, it’s estimated that King Hussein survived over ten assassination attempts, perpetrated by a variety of individuals and organizations, by both skill and sheer luck.

King Hussein reigned until his death from cancer in 1999, surviving both assassination and coup attempts and going on to order assassinations of his own.

Chains of assassination attempts

Yasser Arafat surviving assassination attempts

While King Hussein of Jordan was surviving assassination attempts, he was also part of a group that was ordering assassination attempts on Yasser Arafat, the former chairman of the PLO, an organization that fights for Palestinian liberation.

According to History Collection, it’s believed that King Hussein ordered an assassination attempt in 1970. Arafat was the target of King Hussein’s Bedouin troops, and although King Hussein eventually succeeded in driving the PLO out of Jordan in 1971, Arafat managed to survive.

The Israeli government also conspired repeatedly to assassinate Arafat. Mossad, or the Israeli Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations, is thought to be behind the majority of the assassination attempts of Arafat’s life. But even though the Israeli government acknowledges various attempts to assassination Arafat, it denies any involvement with his actual death in 2004, the cause of which remains unknown. However, according to Rise and Kill First by Ronen Bergman, there’s strong evidence to suggest that the Israeli government "used radiation poisoning to kill Yasser Arafat." And traces of polonium were later discovered on Arafat’s belongings.

Overall, it’s not unlikely that Arafat was eventually assassinated by Mossad agents, considering that it’s estimated that Israel has carried out over 2,700 assassination operations since 1948.

When the CIA hates you, assassination is possible

Fidel Castro talking

Few targeted Fidel Castro like the CIA. Along with others, they tried to assassinate Castro so many times that the highest estimates number over 600 attempts. Although it’s impossible to confirm the more than 600 attempts, many of the assassination attempts aren’t only true but downright ridiculous.

According to Vox, the most famous attempt was the cigar plot, which entailed contaminating a box of cigars with botulinum toxin. Another option involved dusting the inside of a scuba diving suit with a fungus and putting tuberculosis "in the breathing apparatus." Although such a suit was created, it reportedly "never left the laboratory." Given Castro’s love of diving, the CIA also considered building an exploding seashell.

Many of the attempts were revealed during the Church Committee investigation, which revealed to the public the countless illegal activities of the FBI and the CIA. But despite their many efforts, the CIA never managed to murder Fidel Castro, and most of their attempts were "spectacular failures" (via CNN). At one point, the CIA even conspired with the American mafia and managed to slip poison into Castro’s ice cream. Although there are different versions of the assassination attempt, most agree that this was the closest anyone came to assassinating Castro.

Avoiding the CIA’s death wish is no easy task, but Castro died of natural causes at the age of 90 on November 25, 2016.

Sixth assassination attempt’s the charm

Karakozov's attempt to assassinate Tsar Alexander II

During his reign from 1855 to 1881, Tsar Alexander II of Russia survived five assassination attempts. According to The Student, Alexander II became a target in 1866 after a series of reforms, including emancipating the serfs in 1861. The first would-be assassin was Dmitry Karakozov, a 26-year-old revolutionary, who shot at Alexander II on April 4, 1866. In response, Karakozov was executed later that year, and in response, Alexander II also "adopted a more conservative and repressive domestic policy."

Alexander II also survived several assassination attempts by a revolutionary group called Narodnaya Volya, or The People’s Will. However, both of their attempts to assassinate the Tsar with explosives failed. In the first instance, the Tsar changed his route, avoiding the bombs placed on train tracks, and in the second instance, the Tsar simply happened to be late for dinner and "missed the explosion."

However, an explosion rerouted by Sophia Perovskaya on March 13, 1881, finally succeeded. Alexander lost both of his legs in the explosion and passed away soon after. Unfortunately, Alexander II had also planned to create an elected parliament right before his death, making the country a constitutional monarchy. However, the first step Alexander III, his more conservative son, took after his coronation was to cancel those orders.

Resigned to house arrest

President Sukarno writing

President Sukarno, the first president of Indonesia, survived numerous assassination attempts during his reign from 1949 to 1966. While many of the assassination attempts were executed by Dutch agents, likely in retaliation for the struggle for Indonesian independence, the CIA also considered assassinating President Sukarno.

According to The Sydney Morning Herald, the CIA went so far as to recruit someone to carry out the assassination. However, Richard Bissell, the CIA Deputy Director of Plans at the time, claims that the plan "was never perfected to the point where it seemed feasible."

Although no one ever succeeded in assassinating Sukarno and the CIA denies any involvement with his death in 1970, his hold on power started weakening on October 1, 1965, when the September 30th Movement staged a coup. Although the coup was swiftly ended, it resulted in a purge that resulted in between 80,000 to 1,000,000 people being murdered by the military, the majority of whom were communist or alleged communists.

The slaughter of the Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI), or the Indonesian Communist Party, obliterated Sukarno’s supporters, and he was soon forced to hand the presidency over to Suharto, who ordered the military’s massacre and propaganda campaign. Sukarno died while under house arrest in 1970, while Suharto went on to rule for 31 years until his resignation in 1998.

Pervez Musharraf speaking
Indigenous Peoples outside United Nations protest assassinations