Dear scientists, we love learning about nanotechnology and flashlight fish and breakthroughs in medicine, because that stuff is fascinating and world-changing and it satisfies the human desire to better understand our world. But really, scientists, can’t you just leave ghosts alone already? Because believing in ghosts doesn’t hurt anyone, and in some cases it actually helps people, and also it’s fun.

But nooo, scientists can’t resist endlessly telling us how wrong we are about why people see ghosts. It’s all in our heads, they say. It’s reflections and mold and infrasound and blah blah blah science science. Well, we’re here to say that dang it, some of the scientific explanations for ghost encounters actually sound pretty convincing. But that doesn’t mean you still can’t choose to believe. And for every paranormal encounter that can be explained away by one of the items on this list, there’s probably another one that totally defies explanation. So skeptics rejoice and everyone else, feel free to read about all the dumb science of why people see ghosts with skepticism.

Ghosts are down to the power of suggestion

Abandoned house

If you’re a believer in the paranormal and someone tells you that the house or hotel or bookstore you’re about to enter is haunted, you’re more likely to have a paranormal experience (or at the very least some creepy feelings) when you walk into that place. Yeah, that makes sense. It makes so much sense, in fact, that we don’t really need a study to tell us it’s true, but alas, we got one anyway.

In 1997, researchers put 22 people into a creepy theater and told them to make observations. Half of the subjects were told the theater was haunted, and the other half were told that it was under construction. Predictably, the half who thought they were visiting a haunted theater were more likely to report "more intense perceptual experiences," which is presumably science-speak for seeing or sensing the presence of something other-worldly.

So those results seem to suggest that paranormal experiences happen mostly because people have been led to believe they might happen. In other words, good old fashioned paranoia. Which by the way is also why it took you six months to stop sleeping with the lights on and a blanket over your television screen the first time you watched The Ring.

Ghosts are just a draft

Drafty window

Paranormal investigators often talk about "cold spots," but so-called haunted houses do tend to be old and old buildings do tend to be drafty. So just because you’ve walked through a cold spot doesn’t necessarily mean you’ve violated the personal space of a spirit.

According to the party-poopers at How Stuff Works, cold spots are probably a natural phenomena. When researchers actually try to find a reason for a temperature change, it can usually be traced to something like a chimney or a drafty window. The sensation of a sudden drop in temperature can also be related to a drop in humidity — that’s what Richard Wiseman concluded at the end of his famous study into the hauntings at Mary King’s Close (though that doesn’t explain the other things his subjects experienced, like an apparition in a leather apron and the sensation of having your clothes tugged on).

Incidentally, this particular study and another one he conducted in 2003 found that subjects tended to have more paranormal experiences in the rooms and vaults that were famously haunted, vs. those where no one had ever reported ghostly encounters — even when they weren’t informed ahead of time which was which. So as far as that previous power-of-suggestion study is concerned, well, plft. Although Wiseman also suggested that the paranormal experiences people had in these places could have something to do with natural phenomena like magnetic fields and lighting levels. So that’s no fun. No fun at all.

Ghosts might appear because you’re stressed out

Stressed woman

So then some researchers published a paper called "Supernatural Agency: Individual Difference Predictors and Situational Correlates" because big words make you sound smart. Anyway, this particular paper suggested that people who have paranormal experiences tend to be more open to the idea of spiritual experiences in general, and also have "thinner mental boundaries" and higher empathy scores. It also found that people in "threatening and ambiguous environment[s]," are more prone to having non-religious paranormal experiences. In other words, instead of seeing an angel or talking to God, a person experiencing environmental stress might see a shadow figure or a full-bodied apparition.

That research has been backed up by other studies, including one that specifically looked at whether stress can cause women to report paranormal experiences. This study looked at a group of women in a town in central eastern Turkey, and determined that women who suffered trauma in childhood or had post-traumatic stress disorder were more likely to say they’d experienced things like possession, precognition, and extra-sensory perception.

Ghosts could be a brain malfunction

Brain scan

Who amongst us doesn’t love to be told we’re suffering from a brain malfunction? According to the Pew Research Center, about 18% of Americans say they’ve seen a ghost, so if this particular theory is true, it means roughly one in five of us have a malfunctioning brain. Awesome.

In 2006, a neurologist in Switzerland was attempting to isolate the part of the brain responsible for a 23-year-old woman’s seizures when he blundered into a strange phenomenon. When he applied current through a certain part of her brain, she told him she sensed a mysterious, shadowy person standing behind her. Even more creepy, the shadow person was mimicking her — every time she moved, he would move. Some scholars think that researchers were simply stimulating the part of the brain that’s responsible for that creepy feeling you sometimes get that you are being watched or followed by something that isn’t there.

But wait, there’s more. Research using a device called "the God helmet," which sends magnetic signals to the wearer’s head, showed that a person can be artificially induced to feel like there is a ghostly presence in the room. And if you want all that summed up, well the BBC said it nice and bluntly: "Some paranormal experiences are easily explainable, based on faulty activity in the brain." The author then goes on to explain how poltergeist activity corresponds nicely with damage to the right hemisphere. Thanks for clearing that up, wise ones.

Orb photos are just a trick of the light

Ghost orbs
Orb photography, on the other hand, is total bunk. Science can have that one.

You’ve almost certainly seen examples of this sort of "proof" of the paranormal — a photo of an otherwise innocuous person, place or thing that contains eerie looking balls of light, also known as spirit orbs. Similar manifestations can be seen on your favorite ghost hunting shows (hint: They’re insects. They’re totally insects.) As far as those creepy orbs are concerned, though, even websites dedicated to ghostly encounters, like Colonial Ghosts, will often write off orb photos as total bunk. So if they’re not spirit orbs, then, what are they?

The orbs that appear in photographs are usually just specs of dust or pollen, insects, moisture in the air, or something on the camera’s lens. When the photographer engages the flash, these things reflect the light and create the image of a large, creepy-looking ball of ectoplasm. The phenomena is actually exacerbated by modern camera design — the closer the flash is to the camera’s lens, the easier it will be for the light to reflect off of particles in the air, and the more likely it is that the camera will capture something that can be mistaken for a ghost. Sorry to be an active participant in all the party pooping, but that’s just a technological truth.

Ghostly encounters are common during sleep paralysis

Sleep paralysis

If you’ve ever fallen asleep in front of an especially boring episode of Law & Order, you may have experienced a phenomenon known as "sleep paralysis." If not, well, Newsweek says it’s basically a state where "features of REM sleep continue into waking life." When you experience sleep paralysis, you’ll be deep in the REM dream state, but then you’ll half-wake and experience a sort of hybrid state of consciousness, where you’re still experiencing dreamlike hallucinations. And just so the whole thing will be that much more terrifying, you also won’t be able to move.

Paralysis is actually necessary for safe REM sleep — it happens mostly so you won’t punch your spouse in the face while acting out your Fight Club dream. But when you experience it in a state of near-wakefulness, it can be really scary. Add a few dream demons to the mix, and it can feel like a genuine paranormal experience.

Sleep paralysis is actually common — about 8 percent of us will report experiencing it at least once and for some people, it’s a regular thing. But those feelings of a ghost at the end of the bed are just a feature of sleep paralysis, they aren’t really paranormal visitations. Which is comforting if you’re someone who goes through this a lot — it’s one thing to see a shadow figure in an old building, and quite another to be literally paralyzed while one lurks at the foot of your bed.

Ghosts might be caused by exploding head syndrome

Man waking up

Yeah, that’s actually a thing. Similar to sleep paralysis, exploding head syndrome is something that happens to you while you’re sleeping. The experience usually goes like this: You’re nodding off and suddenly you could swear you just heard a massive explosion or a huge crash somewhere in your house, but upon awakening you can’t find any physical evidence of such a thing. So what’s the deal? Maybe you’re hearing the paranormal echoes of something terrible that happened in the distant past? Or maybe it’s just exploding head syndrome.

Okay so huh? You may have actually experienced this phenomenon, but the name for it is still pretty new. It was coined by a neurologist named JMS Pearce, who seems to think it’s caused by a sort of syncing error in the brain. As you’re drifting off to sleep, your body starts shutting down things like muscles, eyes, and ears. When you suddenly hear a phantom "bang" during this process, it might be because the part of your brain that’s in charge of shutting down all those functions gets a little mixed up and instead of shutting down all the auditory neurons it just fires them all at once instead. Why does it do this? Reasons. But the takeaway is that it’s your brain, not spirits from a long-ago battlefield or a poltergeist in your closet. Dang.

Ghostly visitors are just a coping strategy

Couple in a graveyard

Whether you believe in ghosts or not, it seems sort of callously cruel to debunk the experiences of people who claim they’ve been visited by the spirit of a deceased child or other family member. Really, science, you need to just leave this one alone.

People who have lost close family members often report having paranormal experiences, especially in those early stages of grief. These could include vivid dreams of being visited by their deceased loved one, or feelings of being watched over, or even fleeting images of the person who died. According to the BBC, science thinks it can explain these experiences by calling them "coping strategies" of the grieving brain. The theory is that it’s easier to accept the passing of a loved one if you think that person still exists in some form, than it is it to just believe that the person is gone forever. So the brain invents these spiritual encounters with the deceased person as a way of easing those feelings of grief.

And yeah, that makes a certain kind of logical sense. But you don’t have to say it out loud, do you? Remember, these experiences help people get through a very difficult time in their lives, just like religion does, and it seems unfair to take that away with logic and science. So seriously, people, just let grieving people have their paranormal experiences and if you must debunk, work on poltergeists and sleep paralysis demons instead.

Ghosts might mean carbon monoxide poisoning

Old furnace

If your once-peaceful house suddenly seems to be haunted, it might not necessarily be the house, and it might not be you, either. In fact, it could potentially be something really lethal, like a malfunctioning furnace. So before you call an exorcist, make sure your carbon monoxide alarms are working and if they’re not, get out and don’t return until your utility company says its safe to.

In the 1920s, the Journal of Ophthalmology documented the strange case of a couple who believed they were living in a haunted house. According to the Vintage News, the woman reported hearing footsteps and the sound of someone pushing furniture around, even though there was no one else there. She also felt like she was being followed around the house, and at one point she woke to see two apparitions at the foot of her bed. The couple spoke to doctors but it wasn’t until they had experts look at the house that they discovered the real cause of the haunting: A carbon monoxide leak in the furnace, which was bad enough to cause hallucinations but not quite bad enough to cause death.

So if you’ve ever wondered if ghosts can kill, yes they can. In a sort of roundabout way. The carbon monoxide that makes you hallucinate ghosts can certainly kill you, so if you haven’t changed the batteries in your CO alarm in a while, well, now would be a good time to do that.

Or ghosts could be due to toxic mold


So your house is clearly haunted and you’ve already swapped out your CO alarm batteries and then you tossed your CO alarm and got a new one and ghosts are still throwing your stuff around and hoovering creepily in doorways. Well, it might still be poison-induced hallucinations, just a different kind of poison.

According to, some researchers think there may be a link between the mold that tends to grow in dark, creepy places and the paranormal experiences people say they have in those places. This is of particular interest to Shane Rogers, who is a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Clarkson University. He cites a 2009 study which showed that certain types of mold can cause problems like delirium, movement disorders, and issues with balance and coordination. From there, it’s not a huge leap to think that maybe mold could also cause the sorts of hallucinations that make people think they’re seeing ghosts. So in 2015, Rogers and a team of researchers set out to find out if their hunch might be correct.

That’s been a few years ago now, and we’re still waiting patiently for the results of Rogers’ research. So maybe the mold theory has been quietly packed away in that haunted basement? Still waiting …

Ghosts could be super low-frequency sounds

Old pipes

If you’re starting to think that some of these scientific explanations sound only slightly less outlandish than "it’s a spirit trapped on the corporeal plane," here’s another theory that seems a bit out there. According to ProSoundWeb, ghosts could be low frequency illusions caused by "standing waves." Or in non "I have no idea what that means" terms, it’s when low-frequency sound creates a ghostly apparition.

So how does that happen, exactly? Well the author of the ProSoundWeb article had an experience involving a fencing sword and a fan — the fan was emitting a low-frequency sound that made the sword vibrate, and was evidently also making him feel like he was being watched. Even stranger, he also saw an apparition. Wait, what?

Infrasound, which is sound below the normal range that humans can hear, can cause physical and emotional sensations like feelings of dread. It isn’t just fans that create infrasound, it’s also things like ocean waves, vibrating pipes, and even some animals like whales and elephants. When the sound happens at just the right frequency, it can also make the eyes vibrate, which explains why some people who are experiencing infrasound believe they’ve literally seen a ghost.

It might just be because it’s fun to believe in ghosts

Ghost in the woods

If you don’t believe any of those other scientific explanations for the existence of ghosts, here’s one that’s pretty hard to deny: It’s just fun to believe in ghosts. It’s fun in the same way that a roller coaster or a horror movie is fun. We like to be scared, and because we’re fundamentally attached to the idea that ghosts are real, well, that it makes it hard for us to accept scientific logic.

Belief in ghosts also serves another purpose — it helps us confront our own mortality. The presence of spirits in a house or an old hotel does more than just satisfy that sense of fun, it also helps us cling to the notion that there’s something after death. Hopefully life after death is not haunting a drafty room in an 19th-century hotel for eternity, but still. According to the Atlantic, belief in ghosts makes us feel like we can glimpse an afterlife that deep down inside we are all kind of afraid might not actually exist. And yes, that’s a pretty party-pooping thing to say but you can take it with a grain of salt. Even if you look at all these potential scientific explanations for ghostly experiences as a whole, they can’t possibly explain away every single paranormal experience that’s ever happened anywhere on Earth. So believe or don’t believe but for real, science, just let the rest of us have our fun. Jeez.

The Queen Mary

Everybody loves a good ghost story, but do you know what they love even more? A ghost story with some historical elements. Toss in a suitably creepy, kooky, and/or altogether ooky locale, and your haunted encounter somehow holds more weight than, say, your fresh-out-of-rehab cousin’s ghost photography stories that you just have to nod at supportively because, you know, he’s trying.

It’s the whole reason you don’t see a lot of horror movies that take place in a Chili’s. Tales of the supernatural just have more pull when they take place in a freaky old mansion or a swamp full of bodies — places you look at, shiver, and think, "There’s a story there."

And that’s definitely the case with the Queen Mary. Repeatedly called one of the "most haunted places in the world," this ocean liner is practically custom made for campfire tales. Why do people see her and immediately assume she’s home to some form of monster mash (and, by extension, various levels of the graveyard smash)? Here are reasons people think the Queen Mary is haunted.

The Queen Mary has a grim history

The Queen Mary

Ocean liners don’t get much attention in this century unless they run into legal trouble or the toilets stop working, but back in the day, they were a symbol — a signal of prosperity, ingenuity, and the triumph of the human spirit over the forces of nature. They didn’t have as many water slides as newer cruise ships, but this was generations ago and people were still learning what was important.

Massive amounts of work went into the creation of the RMS Queen Mary. All told, it took nearly four years to complete construction, and Shipping Wonders of the World says a river had to be widened just so that she could launch in September of 1934. If that date seems uncomfortably close to World War II to you, then good eye, soldier. The floating behemoth only had a few years of service as an ocean liner before she wound up conscripted into military service.

She spent the bulk of the war transporting troops and had her interior painted a uniform Navy grey, landing her the nickname "The Grey Ghost" (the less popular nickname "Bigboat Foreshadowsmith" never caught on). She was big, fast, and difficult to track, making her the perfect way to get soldiers from point A to point B. The Queen Mary undoubtedly bore witness to some of the horrors of battle, but this chapter does have a happy ending — she was used to carry troops home at the end of the war, too.

The Queen Mary has had a restless retirement

The Queen Mary

Post war, the Queen Mary saw plenty of love. She was refitted, repainted, and made fancier than ever. For the next several years, she was the most high-class way to cross the Atlantic Ocean.

But the good times can’t last forever, and by the time the 1960s rolled around, there weren’t a lot of people left who were interested in taking a frigid three day trip across the ocean when one of them newfangled airplanes could do the trick in half a jiffy and throw in free peanuts to boot. The ship made her final journey in 1967, and was permanently moored in Long Beach, California, as a floating hotel, museum, and tourist destination, which opened in 1971.

Strange though it may sound, the marketing pitch of "come check out our boat that doesn’t go anywhere" didn’t seem to pan out for any of the Queen Mary‘s owners over the next few decades. According to the New York Times, she was bounced from one proprietor to another, even spending some time as part of Disney’s planned "Port Disney" theme park back before they figured out that superheroes have a better profit/loss ratio than retired ocean liners. We only bring this up because nothing is scarier than financial insolvency. Alright, on to the dead people.

The Queen Mary’s collision with death

queen mary

People die. It’s one of the things that we’re best at. Put enough of us in an area for long enough and eventually, a few of us are going to shuffle loose from our mortal coils. With that in mind, the Queen Mary had held millions of passengers by the time she was retired, and yes, things occasionally got crunchy. We’ll start with the big one.

As we mentioned earlier, the Queen Mary was used as a transport ship during World War II, and was prized for her ability to move quickly and quietly. However, all large watercraft employed during the war were expected to use a "zig zag" formation: a serpentine movement designed to befuddle and perplex enemy submarines which might be waiting beneath the surface of the water to torpedo the living bejeezus out of them.

IWM reports it was during one such maneuver that the Queen Mary zigged straight into another ship, the HMS Curacoa, a British light cruiser. The collision chopped the Curacoa clean in half, killing all but a fraction of the more than 400 men on board. It wouldn’t be the ship’s last brush with tragedy.

Weird accidents onboard the Queen Mary

Door 13

In 1966, 18-year-old crewman (or possibly fireman, according to Haunted Honeymoon; the accounts vary, and that’s something you’ll see a lot of here) John Pedder was taking part in a routine drill aboard the Queen Mary when he was abruptly and permanently squished by the number 13 bulkhead door. What happened next was of little shock to anyone: he died. What allegedly happened after that was somewhat more puzzling.

Over the next several years, Pedder was reportedly seen going about his spectral business just outside of Door 13. The reports come from security personnel and (here’s where you’re allowed to release a few lungfuls of skepticism in an exasperated sigh) publicists for the ship’s "Ghosts and Legends" tours, the latter of whom swear that the experience was definitely worth $17.50 for adults and $14 for seniors. And that was in George H. W. Bush 1991 dollars, so you know they meant business.

A smoky apparition

John Treasure Jones

Another alleged supernatural whatnot aboard the Gray Ghost is, in theory, the spiritual activity of Captain John Treasure Jones, a man so nautical that "Treasure" was his actual middle name. Jones was the captain of the Queen Mary from September of 1965 until her retirement in 1967. There are rumors that he still haunts her decks. What sort of uncanny evidence fuels these rumblings? Captain Jones smoked cigars, and people sometimes claim to smell cigar smoke on board. Breathtaking.

Now, ignoring for a moment that, according to Queen Mary Shadows, these reports were made by a professional psychic whose mustache and eyebrows appear to be haunted by the ghost of a vengeful Just For Men box and that they include all the specificity of a horoscope made of words cut from fortune cookies, they also exclude some important facts. For example, Captain Jones died quietly of an aneurysm a quarter of a century after the ship was permanently docked, and he’d worked much longer assignments on other ships. But who are we to question how the incorporeal choose their digs? The real problem with this story seems to be that it hinges on the argument "cigar smell = ghost" rather than the more structurally sound "cigar smell = a smell that lingers," but then again, it probably doesn’t matter how sharp Occam’s Razor is in a fight against the intangible.

Spooky shapes

ghost shadow thing

One of the ship’s more well-known hauntings comes courtesy of a little girl who drowned in the ship’s pool. It’s said that her name was Jackie, and beyond that, the details get murky. No one can agree on how old Jackie was when she died, which is sort of a red flag, but the gray areas of the story don’t stop there.

According to Queen Mary Shadows, sometimes it was two girls that drowned, sometimes it’s just the one. Sometimes they died in the second class pool, sometimes they died on a Treat Yourself day in first class. Sometimes the girl or girls died at the hands of a murderer. The point is, it’s a veritable choose-your-own-adventure of paranormality.

In any case, Ghost Adventures did an episode where the titular adventurers caught a blurry image in the vague shape of a person while they stumbled around in the dark shouting "Jackie!" so, big props to Zak Bagans for everything he does.